A four-point inspection of the device die, leads, bond wire, and packaging is performed to verify material authenticity. The following tests are conducted separately or together:
Scanning Electron Microscopy
SEM analysis uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of the specimens. The signals that derive from electron-sample interactions reveal information about the sample including external morphology, chemical composition, crystalline structure, and orientation of materials that make up the sample to see if these structures meet the manufacturer’s requirements. The following figures show the differences between an original and a counterfeit.
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy
EDXRS is an analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization to see if the elements are verified in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
FTIR spectroscopy is used mostly for identifying chemicals that are either organic or inorganic, especially for indi-cating polymer, coatings, and contaminants that help identify counterfeit electronic products.
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
Energy-dispersive XRF is performed to characterize individual particles to verify they meet manufacturing criteria both quantitatively and qualitatively.